2024, Volume 42, Issue 2
The intestine is the main site of oral drug absorption, and the epithelial cells of the intestine contain villi and microvilli, which promote secretion, cell adhesion, and absorption by increasing surface area and other factors. Traditional two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2D/3D) cell culture models and animal models have played an important role in studying drug absorption, but their application is limited due to the lack of sufficient predictability of human pharmacokinetics or ethical issues, etc. Therefore, mimicking the core structure and key functions of the human intestine based on in vitro live cells has been the focus of research on constructing a microfluidic chip-based intestinal model. The model is a microfluidic chip bionic system that simulates the complex microstructure, microenvironment, and physiological functions of the human intestine using microfabrication technology. Compared with 2D cell culture and animal experiments, the intestinal microarray model can effectively simulate the human in vivo environment and is more specific in drug screening. The research progress and applications in disease modeling, drug absorption and transport of intestinal microarray models and intestine-related multi-organ coupled microarray models at home and abroad were reviewed in this paper. The current challenges of intestinal chip simulating intestinal homeostasis and diseases were summarized, in order to provide reference for the further establishment of a more reliable in vitro intestinal chip model.
Secondary metabolites of medicinal plants are extremely important to human health because of their special pharmacological activities or efficacy. They are the main source of drugs, health care products, and cosmetics. As human beings continue to pursue health and longevity, the demand in the pharmaceutical market continues to grow. It becomes especially important to improve the production and quality of secondary metabolites of medicinal plants. Plant secondary metabolites are a kind of adaptation of plants to their environment and are the result of the interaction between plants and biotic and abiotic factors during the long-term evolution process. The production and accumulation of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants are mainly affected by plant genetic factors and environmental factors. Among them, light environment is extremely important for their synthesis. Therefore, light regulation has long been a research focus for many scholars in China and abroad. In this article, we the recent research progress on the effects of light regulation on the secondary metabolites of medicinal plants were reviewed, mainly focusing on the effects of light quality, light intensity and photoperiod, in order to provide theoretical basis and practical guidance for the efficient production of secondary metabolites with important pharmacological activities.