[1] Hanahan D, Weinberg R. The hallmarks of cancer[J]. Cell, 2000, 100(1):57.
[2] World Health Organization. mortality database, WHO statistical information system.available at http://www.who.int/whosis/en/.accessed March 19, 2008.
[3] Kassahun W, Fangmann J, Harms J, et al. Liver Resection and Transplantation in the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma:A Review[J]. Exp Clin Transplant, 2006, 4(2):549.
[4] El-Serag HB, Rudolph L. Hepatocellular carcinoma:Epidemiology and molecular carcinogenesis[J]. Gastroenterology, 2007, 132(7):2557.
[5] Anthony P. Hepatocellular carcinoma:an overview[J]. Histopathology,2001, 39(2):109.
[6] El-Serag HB, Mason AC. Rising incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States[J]. New Eng J Med, 1999, 340(10):745.
[7] El-Serag HB, Tran T, Everhart JE. Diabetes increases the risk of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma[J]. Gastroenterology, 2004, 126(2):460.
[8] El-Serag H, Mason A, Key C. Trends in survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma between 1977 and 1996 in the United States[J]. Hepatology, 2001, 33(1):62.
[9] Onodera H, Ukai K, Minami Y. Hepatocellular-Carcinoma Cases with 5-Year Survival and Prognostic Factors Affecting the Survival-Time[J]. Tohoku J Exp Med, 1995, 176(4):203.
[10] Li J, Yen C, Liaw D, et al. PTEN, a putative protein tyrosine phosphatase gene mutated in human brain, breast,and prostate cancer[J]. Science, 1997, 275(5308):1943.
[11] Fields AC, Cotsonis G, Sexton D, et al. Survivin expression in hepatocel lular carcinoma:correlation with proliferation. prognostic parameters,and outcome[J]. Modern Pathology, 2004, 17(11):1378.
[12] Furui J, Furukawa M, Kanematsu T. The low positive rate of serum alpha-fetoprotein levels in hepatitis C virus antibody-positive patients with hepatocellular carcinoma[J]. Hepatogastroenterology,1995, 42(5):445.
[13] Nguyen MH, Keeffe EB. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma[J]. J Clin Gastroenterol, 2002, 35(5 Suppl. 2):S86.
[14] Peng YC, Chan CS, Chen GH. The effectiveness of serum alpha-fetoprotein level in anti-HCV positive patients for screening hepatocellular carcinoma[J]. Hepatogastroenterology, 1999, 46(30):3208.
[15] Nicholson J, Lindon J, Holmes E. 'Metabonomics':understanding the metabolic responses of living systems to pathophysiological stimuli via multivariate statistical analysis of biological NMR spectroscopic data[J]. Xenobiotica, 1999, 29(11):1181.
[16] Fiehn O. Metabolomics—the link between genotypes and phenotypes[J]. Plant Mol Biol,2002, 48(1-2):155.
[17] Zhang F, Jia Z, Gao P, et al. Metabonomics study of urine and plasma in depression and excess fatigue rats by ultra fast liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry[J]. Mol BioSyst, 2010, 6(5):852.
[18] Chen Y, Zhang R, Song Y, et al. RRLC-MS/MS-based metabonomics combined with in-depth analysis of metabolic correlation network:finding potential biomarkers for breast cancer[J]. Analyst, 2009, 134(10):2003.
[19] Zhou J, Xu B, Huang J, et al. 1H NMR-based metabonomic and pattern recognition analysis for detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma[J]. Clinica Chimica Acta, 2009, 401(1-2):8.
[20] Pasikanti KK, Esuvaranathan K, Ho PC, et al. Noninvasive urinary metabonomic diagnosis of human bladder cancer[J]. J Proteome Res, 2010, 9(6):2988.
[21] Lindon J, Nicholson J, Holmes E. The handbook of metabonomics and metabolomics[M]. Amsterdam:elsevier BV,2007:201~226.
[22] Schmidt C. Metabolomics takes its place as latest up-and-coming "omic" science[J]. J Natl Cancer Inst, 2004, 96(10):732.
[23] Cao H, Huang H, Xu W, et al. Fecal metabolome pro?ling of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma patients by ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry[J]. Analytica Chimica Acta, 2011, 691(1-2):68.
[24] Yin P, Wan D, Zhao C, et al. A metabonomic study of hepatitis B-induced liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma by using RP-LC and HILIC coupled with mass spectrometry[J]. Mol BioSyst, 2009, 5(8):868.
[25] Patterson AD, Maurhofer O, Beyoglu D, et al. Aberrant lipid metabolism in hepatocellular carcinoma revealed by plasma metabolomics and lipid profiling[J]. Cancer Res, 2011, 71(21):6590.
[26] Gao H, Lu Q, Liu X, et al. Application of 1H NMR-based metabonomics in the study of metabolic profiling of human hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis[J]. Cancer Sci,2009, 100(4):782.
[27] Chen F, Xue J, Zhou L, et al. Identification of serum biomarkers of hepatocarcinoma through liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based metabonomic method[J]. Anal Bioanal Chem, 2011, 401(6):1899.
[28] Shariff MIF, Ladep NG, Cox IJ, et al. Characterization of urinary biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma using magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a Nigerian population[J]. J Proteome Res, 2010, 9(2):1096.
[29] Shariff MIF, Gomaa AI, Cox IJ, et al. Urinary metabolic biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma in an Egyptian population:a validation study[J]. J Proteome Res, 2011, 10(4):1828.
[30] Xue R, Lin Z, Deng C, et al. A serum metabolomic investigation on hepatocellular carcinoma patients by chemical derivatization followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry[J]. Rapid Commun Mass Sp, 2008, 22(19):3061.
[31] Chen T, Xie G, Wang X, et al. Serum and urine metabolite profiling reveals potential biomarkers of human hepatocellular carcinoma[J]. Mol Cell Proteomics, 2011, 10(7).